⏱️ June 2, 2020
In 1963, Martin Luther King began a massive protest in Birmingham, one of the South’s most segregated cities. Public marches aimed at integrating public facilities and opening up jobs for blacks quickly led to police harassment and many arrests, including that of King himself.
Writing from his cell in Birmingham, he penned his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, outlining his vision for peaceful non-resistance. In this letter:
his message to southern whites was clear and unmistakable: “We will match your capacity to inflict suffering with our capacity to endure suffering. We will meet your physical force with soul force. We will not hate you, but we will not obey your evil laws. We will soon wear you down by pure capacity to suffer.” This would be called peaceful nonresistance.
His ultimate goal was to unite the broken community through the bonds of Christian love. He hoped that non-violence would appeal to the white middle class.
He outlined that in any nonviolent campaign, there were four basic steps: Collection of the facts to determine whether injustices are alive, Negotiation, Self-purification, and Direct Action.
He also expressed disappointment in the white clergy, in whom he had hoped and expected to find allies.
He stated that through painful experience, they knew that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor.
“It’s easy for those who have never experienced segregation to say “wait”, but when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse, kick, and brutalize and even kill your black brothers and sisters with impunity when you see the vast majority of your 20 million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society….then you will understand why it’s difficult to wait.”
In May, 6000 children marched in place of the jailed protester, in what was called the Children’s Crusade, and authorities broke up the demonstration with clubs, police dogs, and high-pressure water hoses that were strong enough to take the bark off a tree.
The horrified nation watch scene after scene of this brutality on national TV. The Kennedy administration quickly intervened to arrange a settlement with Birmingham civic leaders that ended the violence and granted protestors their demands. Kennedy finally ended his long hesitation and sounded a call for action.
Civil rights leaders kept pressure on the administration. They scheduled a massive March on Washington for August 1963. More than 200,000 marchers gathered for a daylong rally in front of the Lincoln Memorial, where they listened to hymns, speeches, and prayers for racial justice. The climax was MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech.
After Kennedy’s death, in an address to Congress, LBJ asked Congress to enact Kennedy’s tax and civil rights bills as a tribute to the fallen leader stating “Let us here highly resolve that John Fitzgerald Kennedy did not live or die in vain.”
Johnson had managed to persuade both a majority of Democrats and some Republicans in Congress to pass the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which:
Made racial discrimination illegal in hotels, motels, restaurants, and other places of public accommodation.
Forbade discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, or gender.
Created the Equal Opportunity Employment Commission to monitor and enforce protections against job discrimination.
Provided for withholding federal grants from state and local governments and other institutions that practiced racial discrimination.
Strengthened voting rights legislation.
Authorized the U.S. Department of Justice to initiate lawsuits to desegregated public schools and facilities.
A Georgia motel owner refused service to African Americans and challenged the law. He claimed it exceeded Congress’s authority and violated his constitutional right to private property as he saw fit. In Heart of Atlanta Motel v US, the Court agreed with Congress that it had the right to create the legislation under interstate commerce.
In 1964, the 24th Amendment was ratified, which abolished the practice of collecting a poll tax, a measure which had discouraged poor people from voting.
MLK, concerned that three million southern blacks were still denied the right to vote, chose Selma, Alabama as the site for the next phase of the civil rights movement. Intimidation and literacy tests still limited the number of registered African American voters. King had focused attention on Selma, Alabama, a town where blacks made up about 50% of the population but only 1% of registered voters. To protest this inequity, King organized a march from Selma to Alabama’s capital, Montgomery.
Alabama state troopers violently blocked the mostly black marchers at the Edmund Pettus Bridge as they tried to cross the Alabama River. Mounted police beat these activists and fired tear gas into the crowd. Two Northerners died in the incident. The media offered vivid images that brought great attention to the issue of civil rights
The president ordered the Alabama National Guard to federal duty to protect the demonstrators, had the Justice Department draw up a new voting rights bill, and personally addressed Congress on civil rights.
Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It banned literacy tests in states and counties which less than half the population had voted in 1964 and provided federal registrars in these areas to assure African American voting rights. By the end of the decade, African American voters in the US had risen from 40% to 65%.
Seeking a new cultural identity based on African and Islam, the Black Muslim leader Elijah Muhammad preached black nationalism, separatism, and self-improvement. The movement attracted thousands of followers by the time a young man became a convert while serving in prison. He adopted the name Malcolm X.
Leaving prison in 1952, Malcolm X acquired a reputation at the movement’s most controversial voice. He criticized King as “an Uncle Tom” (subservient to white) and advocated self-defense using black violence to counter white violence. Eventually, he left the Black Muslims and moved away from defending violence, but he was assassinated by black opponents in 1965.
Some advocated “black power” and racial separatism. Their leader called for African Americans to form their own institutions, credit unions, co-ops, political parties and even write their own history. In 1966, the Blank Panthers were organized as a revolutionary socialist movement advocating self-rule for American blacks.
In April 1968, the nation went into shock over the news that King, while standing on a motel balcony in Memphis, Tennessee, had been shot and killed by a white man. Massive riots erupted in 168 cities across the country, leaving at least 46 people dead. The violence fed a growing “white backlash” especially among white blue-collar voters, to the civil rights movement, which was soon reflected in election results.
🎥Watch: AP US History - Civil Rights for African Americans, LGBT, Women, and Native Americans
🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1 (NAT) - American and National Identity
Theme 2 (WXT) - Work, Exchange, and Technology
Theme 3 (GEO) - Geography and The Environment
Theme 4 (MIG) - Migration and Settlement
Theme 5 (PCE) - Politics and Power
Theme 7 (ARC) - American and Regional Culture
Theme 8 (SOC): Social Structures
📑 Document Based Questions (DBQ)
🌽 Unit 1: 1491-1607
1.1Context: European Encounters in the Americas
1.6Cultural Interactions Between Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans
🦃 Unit 2: 1607-1754
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Contextualization
2.3The Regions of the British Colonies
2.5Interactions between Native Americans and Europeans
2.6Slavery in the Colonies
🔫 Unit 3: 1754-1800
3.6The Influence of Revolutionary Ideals
3.10Shaping a New Republic
🐎 Unit 4: 1800-1848
4.2The Rise of Political Parties and the Era of Jefferson
4.3Politics and Regional Interests
4.8Jackson and Federal Power
4.9The Development of an American Culture
4.10The Second Great Awakening
4.11The Age of Reform
4.12African Americans in the Early Republic
💣 Unit 5: 1844-1877
5.5Sectional Conflict: Regional Differences
5.6Failure of Compromise
5.7Election of 1860 and Secession
5.9Government Policies during the Civil War
🚂 Unit 6: 1865-1898
6.2Westward Expansion: Economic Development
6.3Westward Expansion Social and Cultural Development
6.6The Rise of Industrial Capitalism
6.7Labor in the Gilded Age
6.9Responses to Immigration
🌎 Unit 7: 1890-1945
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Contextualization
7.3The Spanish-American War
7.5World War I: Military and Diplomacy
7.6World War I: Home Front
7.81920s: Cultural and Political Controversies
7.9The Great Depression
7.10The New Deal
7.11Interwar Foreign Policy
7.12World War II: Mobilization
🥶 Unit 8: 1945-1980
8.2The Cold War from 1945-1980
8.3The Red Scare
8.4Economy after 1945
8.6Early Steps in the Civil Rights Movement
8.7America as a World Power
8.8The Vietnam War
8.10The African American Civil Rights Movement
8.11The Expansion of the Civil Rights Movement
📲 Unit 9: 1980-Present
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Contextualization
9.2Reagan and Conservatism
9.3The End of the Cold War
9.6Challenges of the 21st Century
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
*ap® and advanced placement® are registered trademarks of the college board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
© fiveable 2021 | all rights reserved.
2550 north lake drive
milwaukee, wi 53211