Political parties with different ideas of government caused division within the country and increased sectionalism between the North and South. The First Party System consisted of Federalists and Democratic-Republicans and the Second Party System included the Whigs and Democrats.
America changed foreign policies through attempts to increase trade and expand. The country also struggled to demonstrate its power in foreign affairs, such as the War of 1812, but managed to be successful in some situations, like the Monroe Doctrine.
America also expanded and added new territories through various ways, such as the Louisiana Purchase and Mexican Cession. These greatly increased the size of America.
Increasing middle class due to Market Revolution eventually led to the Second Great Awakening, which in turn, allowed reform movements to occur. Minority and religious groups, like slaves, women, and Quakers, flourished with new reforms.