Indigenous peoples responded to imperialism through reform, accommodation, and various types of resistance. Examples of direct resistance included the 1857 Rebellion in India, the Italian-Ethiopian conflict in the 1890s, and The War of the Golden Stool in W. Africa. Nationalist resistance led to the creation of new states such as Serbia, Greece, and Albania. Religious resistance included the Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement, the Ghost Dance, and the Maji Maji Rebellion. While not all successful, all of these movements show the will of indigenous peoples to remain independent in the face of imperial expansion.
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