⏱️ 5 min read
October 28, 2020
In AP® Human Geography, unit 2 covers population & migrations. The following guide will be updated periodically with hyperlinks to excellent resources. As you are reviewing for this unit, focus on the key concepts! Near the bottom of this piece you'll find an expansive list of AP HUG unit 2 vocab!
You can request the full Ultimate Guide to AP Human Geography here.
⚡ Read: AP Human Geography - Unit 2 Overview
The following summary is from AMSCO AP Human Geography:
Critical to human geography is the human population. Geographers seek to understand the distribution of people on earth, why people decide to live where they do, why they migrate from one place to another, and the effects of migration. The demographic characteristics of populations, such as their birth rates, death rates, and life expectancy, are key to understanding population change.
The distribution of people influences all other elements of human geography. Where people live, whether spread out or in small communities, or concentrated in large cities, affects how they relate to each other, what demands they place on the environment, and what decisions they make as a community. For example, the spatial distribution of children will influence where a community will build a new school. People decide where to live based on many factors. Some are physical: people want to be near sources of food and water, and where the climate is not too extreme. Some factors are human: people might want to move to take a job or to be close to family.
Population Changes: For most of history, women typically gave birth to many children, but so few children survived to adulthood that the total human population grew slowly. However, in the past two centuries, advances in public health, medical care, and the economy have enabled people to live longer. The number of births per woman has decreased, but children are more likely to survive to adulthood. As a result of these new patterns, the global population has exploded. However, in recent decades, population growth has leveled off in the prosperous countries.
Why People Move: People have always been on the move. Usually, they migrated by choice, wanting to leave a place of poverty or persecution or warfare in order to live in a place with economic opportunity, religious liberty, political freedom, and peace. In some cases, people had no choice. For example, for nearly four centuries, Africans were enslaved and brought to the Americas.
STUDY TIP: The models will appear all over the exam, in both multiple choice and FRQs. You should be able to identify each one from a description or image, apply them to examples, and use them in your writing.
STUDY TIP: Content from the this unit has appeared on the FRQs ten times since 2001. Take a look at these questions before you review the key concepts & vocabulary below to get a sense of how you will be assessed. Then, come back to these later and practice writing as many as you can!
*The following outline was adapted from the AP® Human Geography Course Description as published by College Board in 2015 found here. This outline reflects the most recent revisions to the course.
Geographical analysis of population
Boundaries, aerial units, and densities
Scale and process
Population and environment
Population distribution and composition
Factors affecting distribution
Consequences of particular distributions
Patterns of age, sex, race and ethnicity
Responses to natural hazards: past, present, and future
Population growth and decline over time and space
Historical trends and projections for the future
Regional variations of demographic transitions
Patterns of fertility, mortality and health
Effects of pro- and anti-natalist policies
Major voluntary and involuntary migrations at different scales
STUDY TIP: These are the concepts and vocabulary from unit 2 that most commonly appear on the exam. Create a quizlet deck to make sure you are familiar with these terms!
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