✨ ap world survival packs are ready!
📑 Document Based Questions (DBQ)
🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1 (ENV) - Humans and the Environment
Theme 2 (CDI) - Cultural Developments and Interactions
Theme 3 (GOV) - Governance
Theme 4 (ECON) - Economic Systems
Theme 5 (SOC) - Social Interactions and Organizations
Theme 6 (TECH) - Technology and Innovation
🗺 Regional Guides
The Pacific from 1200 to the Present
🐎 Unit 1: The Global Tapestry
1.0Overview of Unit 1: The Global Tapestry
1.1East Asia from 1200-1450
1.2Dar al-Islam from 1200-1450
1.4The Americas from 1200 to 1450
1.6Europe from 1200 to 1450
🐫 Unit 2: Networks of Exchange
2.0Overview of Unit 2: Networks of Exchange
2.3Indian Ocean Trade Routes
2.4Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
2.5Cultural Effects of Trade
2.6Environmental Effects of Trade
🕌 Unit 3: Land-Based Empires
3.0Overview of Unit 3: Land-Based Empires
3.1Expansion of Land-Based Empires
3.2Governments of Land-Based Empires
🍕 Unit 4: Transoceanic Interconnections
4.0Overview of Unit 4: Transoceanic Interconnections
4.1New Technologies from 1450-1750
4.4Maritime Empires Established
4.5Expansion of Maritime Empires
4.6Resistance to European Expansion
✊ Unit 5: Revolutions
5.2Revolutions from 1750-1900
5.5Technology in the Industrial Age
5.7Economic Effects of Industrialization
🚂 Unit 6: Consequences of Industrialization
6.0Overview of Unit 6: Consequences of Industrialization
💣 Unit 7: Global Conflict
7.0Overview of Unit 7: Global Conflict
7.6Causes of World War II
🥶 Unit 8: Cold War & Decolonization
8.0Overview of Unit 8: Cold War & Decolonization
8.2The Cold War
8.3Effects of the Cold War
8.4Spread of Communism After 1900
8.5Decolonization After 1900
8.6Newly Independent States After 1900
8.8End of the Cold War
✈️ Unit 9: Globalization
🤓 Historical Thinking Skills
Causation in the AP Histories
Comparison in the AP Histories
👉 Introduction to AP World
⏱️ 4 min read
June 22, 2020
The expansion of trade on a global scale expanded both the upper elite class and the lower labor class. Global trade was insanely profitable and new elite classes enjoyed this wealth. Meanwhile, the population of forced laborers increased, further expanding the wealth gap.
🎥Watch: WHAP - Changing Social Hierarchies 1450-1750
💣Quick reminder! The gunpowder empires included the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid.
Ottoman society was complex. The Sultans ruled the top of the pyramid and had powers to grant rewards to favored groups, such as soldiers. The middle class included the military, scholars, and other bureaucratic groups.
Within the military, the Janissaries gained power and tried to overthrow the Sultan.
For its time, the Ottoman Empire practiced a surprising amount of religious tolerance for Jews and Christians. Although non-Muslims were forced to pay the jizya tax, many Jews that had been expelled from Spain and Portugal migrated to the Ottoman Empire, which expanded its power.
Meanwhile, the Mughal Empire under Akbar the Great was even more tolerant as they abolished the jizya tax and supported the expansion of Sikhism (blend of Hinduism and Islam).
Women in the Ottoman Empire also experienced some expanded freedoms. Some women, such as Roxelana, climbed the social ladder from slave to wife of the Ottoman ruler Suleiman the Great. This was an extreme case of class mobility, but is an example of what was possible.
The Qing dynasty was ruled by the Manchus, a minority group. This was yet another historical example of a minority group ruling a majority group (see: Mughals, colonialism).
Although they adopted political traditions in China, the Qing were committed to making the Manchu culture dominant. For example, they forced all men to wear their hair in queues (braided pigtail style), which was a power move to test loyalty to the throne.
The majority Han ethnicity faced the most intolerance from the Qing. Often times, Han men would side with the Qing and carry out mass murders of Han men refusing to wear the Manchu hairstyle.
Queue hairstyle. Image Courtesy of ziyadtheartnerd.wordpress
European society was ruled by a royal family that gained enormous wealth from trade and corruption. Below the royals was a second class of the nobility, a small wealthy group that owned most of the land.
Nobles had influence in Parliament, but no power over the royals. The commoners were the lowest class and often challenged the nobility. After a failed revolt from commoners, Louis XIV committed to keeping power from the common people or the nobles, “I am the state.” 👑
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Jewish communities faced increased anti-semitism in Western Europe. In Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella expelled the entire Jewish population, which sent them migrating all over the world.
Jews of Spanish descent that migrated to North Africa and the Middle East are referred to as Sephardic. Jewish populations descended from eastern and central Europe are called Ashkenazi. Both groups would experience a diaspora by the 20th century.
The Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution led to more tolerance for Jews as people contemplated natural rights. The Netherlands was particularly tolerant for Europe at the time, so many Jews migrated there and worked in the booming financial industry. This connection would later be used to scapegoat Jews for economic downturns.
In Russia, the social classes were similar to the rest of Europe, except that they continued to practice serfdom.
The Russian nobility, known as Boyars, were wealthy landowners. Below them were the merchants.
At the bottom was the largest class of peasants, many of whom sank into debt and were forced into serfdom. As serfs, they were completely tied to the land and sold when the land sold.
The most dramatic social changes happened in the Americas because of the influx of Europeans, decimation of Indigenous, and explosion of the African slave trade. Social classes in the Americas were based on race, which is a pivotal difference from the rest of the world.
In the British North American colonies, Europeans, Natives, and African slaves remained separate classes that rarely mixed. Although mixed children existed, primarily because of forced assaults, the societal norm was segregation and policies supported this tradition.
In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, things were different. In an effort to whiten the society, Europeans were encouraged to procreate with the Indigenous and African communities.
All of the ethnic combinations created new social classes organized by race with the whitest at the top. The Peninsulares, or Europeans born in Spain or Portugal, were at the top and served as representatives of the royal crown. The Creole class was born in the Americas, but had the next highest privileges with their pure European descent.
🔺The mixed classes, or the castas, had its own pyramid within a pyramid🔺
Mestizos = European + Indigenous
Mulattoes = European + African
Zambos = Indigenous + African (free)
All other Indigenous communities
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