🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
Retrieval is the process of recalling information from memory such as feelings, images, and events. This is the last step in our memory process. We retrieve information nonstop, especially when taking an exam ✍️
Recall is the process of bringing information from stored memories into conscious awareness. When you remember things, you are “recalling” the memories. Fill-in-the-blank questions test your recall ability.
Recognition is when you notice something you learned previously. Rather than just simply recalling information, multiple-choice exams require you to identify the information you have learned within the question and answer choices.
Relearning measures how much faster someone can learn material that has been previously learned and then forgotten.
For example, at the beginning of your junior year, you had to remember the Gettysburg address 💭for your United States history class. It took you 4 hours to memorize the speech.
Retrieval cues help you remember pieces of information! The more cues, the easier it is to remember something
The serial-position effect is how people tend to remember information in a list that is mentioned first or last. The information mentioned in the middle is more forgotten.
Image Courtesy of UI Patterns.
You can also split this up into:
Recency Effect: remembering the last thing that was said
Primacy Effect: remembering the first thing that was said
Mnemonic devices enhance retention and memory. A mnemonic device is a tool that helps you remember an idea or phrase. An example of a mnemonic device would be ROYGBIV, which is used to remember the colors of the rainbow 🌈 (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet).
Method of Loci
Method of Loci is a mnemonic device in which a person memorizes information by placing each item to be remembered in different spatial locations. For example, let's say you want to remember this shopping list:
You could use the method of loci to remember your list by placing these different items in different spots in your house and then walking around your house to remember the list. You could place the potato on the couch in your living room and emphasize it by having it lie down on the couch.
Peg Word Mnemonic
This mnemonic device puts numbers and words together to help us memorize a scheme. These often rhyme like "1-SUN, 2-SHOE, 3-TREE, 4-DOOR, and 5-HIVE."
Priming is the activation of a memory by association. Hearing one stimulus leads to the activation of another.
Image Courtesy of Faitlux-Day.
Sometimes, what you remember depends on the state or position you are in. Context-dependent memory is specifically remembering information in the same place we encoded it.
For example, if you study at your desk and take the test at your desk as well, you are more likely to do better 💯 Another example is if you're studying and your pencil breaks✏️ and you need to go to another room to sharpen it. However, when you leave your room to go to the office, you forget why you even went there. But then when you went back to your desk, you were like "Ohh, I had to sharpen my pencil." 🤦
State-dependent is how what we learn in one state will be easier to recall in that same state. If someone is drunk and left their keys somewhere, they probably won't remember where when they sober up. However, if they get drunk again, they will remember where they left their keys last time🔑
Mood-congruent memory states that when humans store memories about an event, they don't just store memory, they also store the emotion they felt at that time along with the memory. Therefore, if you are sad you will begin to recall unhappy events. If you're happy, you'll begin to recall other happy events!
The testing effect says that you have an enhanced memory after retrieving information, rather than rereading it. If you are studying for a test, you should never just read the content over and over again. Instead, you should actively recall the information. 🧠
You've probably heard people say this a million times, but it's a real term in AP Psych! A few ways you could actively recall information and properly study are by making flashcards and writing review sheets out for yourself.
🎥Watch: AP Psychology—Cognition + Memory
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