🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 5 min read
November 11, 2020
You know how psychologists describe variables using an operational definition? Intelligence is very subjective, too, but psychometricians are involved in trying to create some sort of test that measures intelligence.
🔔 Standardized—having uniform testing procedures and the test must be graded the same way for everyone. The performance on the test is usually examined with a pretested group and scores should form a normal curve.
Examples of standardized exams that you know of are the SAT, ACT, and AP exams.
🔄 Reliable—For a test to be reliable, it has to yield the same results multiple times. It is best to test reliability by retesting and seeing if the score distribution is similar.
🔄 Valid—Validity is the extent to which the test predicts what it is supposed to.
Reliability and validity are two completely different things and they cannot predict each other.
If you were to shoot a bunch of darts and they all landed to the right of the middle, you would have reliable results, but not valid results.
If you were to shoot a bunch of darts that landed slightly above the middle, slightly below the middle, and slightly on the sides of the middle, with a few darts far away, you would have valid results, but not reliable results.
Image Courtesy of Conjoint.
There are two primary types of tests:
🧠 Achievement Test—Checks what someone has already learned, like the unit exams you have at school or the AP test at the end of the year.
🤔 Aptitude Test—Designed to predict someone's success in the future. An example of this is the ACT or SAT, which are said to give colleges an idea of how prepared you are for college.
Binet was hired to study an education problem in France 🇫🇷 In order to complete his task, he wanted to compare a child's potential to what the child was actually doing. With this, he came up with mental age.
Mental age is the age at which a person functions intellectually. For example, a 9-year-old could have a mental age of a 14-year-old because of their advanced knowledge in certain subjects. If a child has a mental age below their actual age, it means they struggle a little academically.
The idea of an IQ (intelligence quotient) arrived during this time.
IQ = mental age / chronological age x 100
This explains why the average IQ is 100. If someone is 15 years old with a mental age of 15, their IQ is exactly 100.
Grit is basically passion and determination used to pursue a long-term goal.
It was eventually realized that IQ cannot cover all ages. For example, how do we distinguish the mental age of a 53 year old from the mental age of a 52 year old? It's basically impossible, because there isn't much development going on during adulthood years 🤷
Therefore, Terman came up with the Stanford-Binet Test, which was deviation based rather than ratio based.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is the most used intelligence test and contains different subtests like:
Testing vocabulary 💭
Testing design and visual processing 🍥
Testing letter and number sequences 🅰️ 1️⃣
It is so well known that there is also a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
He didn't come up with an intelligence test, but he wondered if there was a way we could test intelligence and then match people with higher IQs together. He was part of the movement to encourage only people with high IQs to reproduce 🤦
We keep talking about a normal curve and deviation, but do you remember what those terms are?
Intelligence scores usually form a normal curve, which is a bell-shaped curve with two extremes and a large middle. Let's discuss it:
Image Courtesy of Macmillian.
The farthest right is the top percentile for IQ, and the farthest left on the curve is the bottom percentile for IQ. The middle 68.2% represents average IQ. Only about 2.6% of people are gifted. The 13.5% on the curve represents above average IQ but not gifted.
This normal bell curve, as we discussed in unit 1, is all about intelligence scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale.
Having an IQ that is below a score of 70 often means that there is some sort of intellectual disability that causes a person to:
have limitations in learning 📖
have a hard time solving problems 🤔
have a hard time communicating 🗣️
lack in many skills needed for everyday life 👔
People with an intellectual disability have a really hard time adapting to the demands of life that require conceptual, social, and practical skills.
An example of an intellectual disability is down syndrome.
Those that are usually on the higher end of the normal curve are gifted 🎁 Their talents and intellect are beyond what is considered one’s normal Mental Age.
An example of this is someone that can barely produce and understand language, but is a genius when it comes to mathematical calculations 🧮
Every test has some sort of bias, and Earl Hunt and Jerry Carlson had a debate over differences in IQ. The stereotype threat is one of the ways ones test score could be affected because of bias.
The stereotype threat is where someone may do worse on a test because they are told they aren't good enough (because of the stereotypes that exist in society). If a Black woman is told she is incapable of passing a medical exam, she may doubt herself and the stress could impair her performance. The stereotype threat causes a change in our behaviors which, in turn, affects our IQ.
2550 north lake drive
milwaukee, wi 53211
92% of Fiveable students earned a 3 or higher on their 2020 AP Exams.
*ap® and advanced placement® are registered trademarks of the college board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
© fiveable 2020 | all rights reserved.