🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 3 min read
November 11, 2020
There are three steps in creating a new memory—encoding is the first! Encoding is the process of sensing information, processing the information and storing it to be retrieved later.
According to this model, there are three different levels of processing information:
Visual encoding is the process of remembering visual images. Visually encoded information is forgotten easily, therefore, it's the most shallow type of processing.
An example of visual encoding would be trying to remember a list of words with each word only being shown for a second. You would be able to remember if there was a word written in red ink or written with all capital letters 🅰️
Acoustic encoding is the processing and encoding of sound. It's deeper than visual encoding, but not as deep as acoustic encoding. You could think of it as intermediate processing.
An example of acoustic encoding would be remembering a slogan to a famous commercial, or even knowing the lyrics to a song that you enjoy 🎵
Semantic encoding is when the meaning of a word, phrase, picture, etc. is encoded on the basis of meaning rather than the sound or vision of it. Studies show that people have a better memory when using semantic encoding, since it's the deepest level of processing.
|Encoding Type||Processing Type||Definition||Example|
|Visual Encoding||Shallow||Remembering the way something looks||If words stood out in a different color or size|
|Acoustic Encoding||Intermediate||Remembering the way something sounds||Catchy Commercial Slogan|
|Semantic encoding||Deep||Remembering something by its meaning||Soccer is a sport⚽|
We can enhance how well we remember something by rehearsing the information.
Maintenance rehearsal is the process of repeatedly thinking about or verbalizing a certain piece of information.
For example, you may not remember the phone number of your favorite takeout restaurant. So you ask your friend near you for the number (they have it memorized). Then, you keep repeating it to yourself until you are able to reach the phone and dial the number.
Elaborative rehearsal is the process of using active thinking about the meaning of the term that needs to be remembered rather than just repeating the word/information over and over again.
For example, if you want to remember the term “hippocampus” you would first look up what it means. Then you find its purpose, look at a diagram, and study it. Then, you think about how the term relates to the things you already know.
When you apply a situation to yourself, you are more likely to remember what the situation is. For example, if you are studying for AP Psychology and word sensory adaptation comes across in your notes, you could think about where you experienced it.
Maybe that morning you went outside and smelled the grass, but a few minutes later, the smell was gone. This will help you remember the term and makes the memory more durable.
Relevant information is processed more deeply and it remains more accessible (you can recall it quickly).
Image Courtesy of Usask.
Another study tip! If you're reading about an experiment 🧪, try picturing the experiment in your mind. Creating visual images in your mind as you study always helps with memory as well.
💡TIP—Whenever the meaning of a term is mentioned, you should automatically think of deep processing.
🎥 Watch: AP Psychology - Cognition + Memory
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