The road to equality for civil rights is a long, hard, and ongoing move. Throughout the historical period of the Civil Rights Movement, the Court both restricted and protected the rights of minority groups.
The state laws and federal laws first upheld the principles of discrimination. This happened in the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson, allowing segregation in many public places including hotels 🏨, schools, bathrooms 🚽, drinking fountains, buses 🚌, and so much more on the basis that they were "separate but equal."
The ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson was reversed in the 1954 case of Brown v. Board of Education.
Brown v. Board stated that racial segregation in schools 🎓 was in violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This led to the change in the phrase to “separate is not equal”.
Also, in Brown v. Board of Education II (1955), it was obvious that school segregation was still occurring. Thus, the Warren Court ordered that the schools desegregate “with all due and deliberate speed.”
🎥 Watch: AP GOPO - Civil Liberties and Rights
🙏 Free Reviews 2020
Required Supreme Court Cases
🏛 Unit 1: Foundations of American Democracy
1.5Ratification of the U.S. Constitution
1.7Relationship Between States and the Federal Government
1.8Constitutional Interpretations of Federalism
⚖️ Unit 2: Interactions Among Branches of Government
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Interactions Among Branches of Government
2.2Structures, Powers, and Functions of Congress
2.4Roles and Power of the President
2.8The Judicial Branch
2.11Checks on the Judicial Branch
✊ Unit 3: Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
3.2First Amendment: Freedom of Religion
3.6Amendments: Balancing Individual Freedom with Public Order and Safety
3.7Selective Incorporation & the 14th Amendment
3.8Amendments: Due Process and the Rights of the Accused
3.11Government Responses to Social Movements
🐘 Unit 4: American Political Ideologies and Beliefs
🗳 Unit 5: Political Participation
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
AP Gov FRQ: Argument Essay Review (2020)
FRQ: Conceptual Analysis
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