ap calc

✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)

👑 Unit 1: Limits & Continuity

🤓 Unit 2: Differentiation: Definition & Fundamental Properties

🤙🏽 Unit 3: Differentiation: Composite, Implicit & Inverse Functions

👀 Unit 4: Contextual Applications of the Differentiation

✨ Unit 5: Analytical Applications of Differentiation

🔥 Unit 6: Integration and Accumulation of Change

💎 Unit 7: Differential Equations

🐶 Unit 8: Applications of Integration

🦖 Unit 9: Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates & Vector Valued Functions (BC Only)

♾ Unit 10: Infinite Sequences and Series (BC Only)

🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)

#particularsolutions

#initialconditions

#separationofvariables

⏱️ **3 min read**

written by

June 8, 2020

🎥**Watch: AP Calculus AB/BC - ****Separable Differential Equations**

*Continued from ***7.6 Finding General Solutions Using Separation of Variables****.**

Let’s look at the differential equation given in Eq. 12:

If we treat the **derivative as a fraction**, we can do something that would disgust professional mathematicians*:

We can perform step 5 because the two sides of the equation are equivalent, thus we can perform the same operation (ie. integration) on both sides and not lose any information.

Continuing the **integration**:

Note that we need two constants because we found two different antiderivatives. However, we can **combine them into a single constant:**

This statement means that, because the set of real numbers is an infinite set** and both of the constants are real numbers, the difference between them is also a real number, ie. another constant we can call *C*.

So,

Notice that this equation is also equivalent to the solution given in Eq. 12. The solution given in Eq. 27 is a generalization of the solution given in Eq. 12.

Now, let’s say that we have some prior information about the function called an **initial condition**, eg. *y(0) = 1*. We can use this information to solve for *C*:

This implies that *C = 0*, which means we have found the specific solution to the differential equation in Eq. 12 along with the condition that *y(0) = 1*.

We can also revisit the differential equation in Eq. 11:

We need to take special precautions regarding the **absolute value signs** when solving for *y*:

So, the general solution is *y = C2e^x - 5*. For an additional exercise, find a specific solution to the differential equation such that *y(ln5)* *= -6*.

Another differential equation that is solvable via **separation of variables** is the equation below:

Notice that if *C = 0*, the solution to the differential equation is just *y = x*. If you plug *y = x* into the differential equation in Eq. 33, you will notice that this returns a valid equality.

Solve the differential equation below given an initial condition and a range restriction. (Hint: rewrite the arcsine expression using the identity that defines a cosine graph as a shifted sine graph and do something similar for the arccosine expression.)

The arc trig expressions are red herrings:

*This mathematical move is actually incorrect because multiplying the *dx* term over in that fashion implies that *dx* is a number and therefore *dy/dx* is a fraction, which is not true. However, this move is completely acceptable for the AP exam.

**“Infinite” in this context is not well-defined. The actual size of the set is called its cardinality, which is not simply infinity as implied in the statement:

Some definitions also include zero in the set of natural numbers (the lastly defined set in the statement).

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