🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
November 11, 2020
There are two chemical senses: taste (gustation) and smell (olfaction). They are chemical senses since the stimuli are the molecules of the object you are tasting or smelling.
Every sense has its purpose, and these two serve as warning signs. For example, if you smell food that's old or rotten, you won't eat it, therefore saving your body from later pain. If you are in your house and you smell smoke, your senses would be heightened and you would escape immediately. Chemical senses help us survive in any environment.
We have five main taste receptors: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. Umami is the protein taste you get from eating chicken🍗
When you eat something, your taste buds catch the chemicals of the food. Taste buds are the most concentrated on your tongue, but there are also some on the roof of your mouth. Something really interesting is that you can only taste food that dissolves with your saliva.
Babies 👶🏼 show a preference for sweet 🍭 and salty 🥨 foods and avoid bitter and sour foods. We often all have a preference for sweet and salty, and they allow us to survive, whereas if a baby tastes something bitter or sour, they would think poison or rotten.
Also, taste is very subjective and can change based on culture and emotion as well.
Generally, you should be aware that pleasurable tastes attracted our ancestors to rich, good-tasting foods that enabled our survival.
Our sense of smell also enabled our survival. We only smell something when molecules of that substance reach a cluster of our receptor cells in our nose. Isn’t that wild? Everything that you smell actually touches your nose!
These receptor cells respond to a familiar sense and instantly alert the brain. For example, mothers and infants form a chemistry relationship because of their sense of smell. Infants always know exactly who their mother is just by the familiar scent.
Remember the trichromatic theory? We only have three color, receptors but when multiple are activated, we see infinite colors 🌈 This happens with smell as well. Certain molecules excite certain receptors and a mix could create new smells.
As people age, we lose our sensitivity to taste and smell. This is why you may see an older person overusing spices.
💡Fun Fact - This is the only sense that doesn't go through the thalamus. If you recall, whatever you see goes from your eyes to the optic nerve to the thalamus, and then finally to the visual cortex. The same goes for every other sense, besides smell.
This becomes very interesting and explains why certain smells may remind you of a person or place. Your sense of smell goes directly to the brain and there is an immediate response of these receptors and molecules.
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