🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
Body senses provide you with information about the position of your body in respect to your environment. The four main ones are touch, pain, vestibular, and kinesthesis.
The sense of touch that you experience is a mix of pressure, warmth, cold, and pain. Variations of these four include tickling, itching, and wetness. For example, wetness results from the stimulation of both cold and pressure receptors. The information from the sensory receptors is then carried to your spinal cord, which is transferred to your medulla, thalamus, and, finally, the somatosensory cortex.
Touch is very subjective.
Just like smell and taste are essential for your survival, pain is your body’s way of telling you to stop the action you are doing.
People that don't feel pain at all can die early because they either don’t detect when something is wrong with their body or they don’t stop an action that's harmful. Several people have been born without a sense of pain.
Pain is relieved with the secretion of endorphins, which are the “feel good” hormones. Everyone feels pain differently, based on genetics and experience, but women are generally more pain-sensitive.
Scientists Melzack and Wall came up with the gate-control theory in an attempt to explain where the pain comes from. Their theory is that the spinal cord, where pain signals are sent to, has a neurological “gate” that can block or allow a pain signal to go to the brain. The gate is opened by nerve fibers that carry pain signals and closed by neural activity or larger nerve fibers🤺
Image Courtesy of Graceful Agony.
To control chronic pain, massage, acupuncture, ice, and endorphins can close the gate. All of these are methods we often use to reduce pain.
When we are distracted by pain but soothed by a natural release of endorphins, pain is reduced. For example, many athletes don’t notice that they sprained their ankle during a game. How is that possible? Wouldn’t they automatically detect the pain? No, while you play a sport, endorphins are naturally released. This sensation of endorphins blocks the pain during the game, but immediately after, the pain is felt.
The brain can also play psychological tricks on you and create pain. This is often known as phantom limb sensations, where the brain misinterprets activity🧠
The gate-control theory only explains the biological influences of pain. Psychologically, we seem to edit our memories of pain and overlook how long we have felt pain. We often only remember the time we felt the most pain, and the time the pain began to diminish. Socially, we tend to perceive pain when others also experience it. For example, if men see someone get hit in the crotch, they also “feel” the pain, even though it isn’t happening to them.
The vestibular sense is your sense of movement, including balance. Our semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear are responsible for keeping balance. Hair cells are stimulated by movement and your vestibular sacs respond to the movement with similar receptors, balancing it out and creating an equilibrium.
When you are motion sick 🤢, the signals from your vestibular system and your eyes 👀 clash with one another.
Kinesthesia is the system that enables us to sense our position and how and when our body parts move. Our vision working with kinesthesia allows us to know where we stand with respect to our environment.
Proprioception is the awareness of where the parts of your body are in relation to the space around you.
Sensory Interaction is where our senses interact with one another and influence each other. For example, smell + texture + taste = flavor. Also, when you have a cold 🤧 and experience pain, your sense of taste may be affected and food could taste bland.
Embodied Cognition is the influence of bodily sensations on our psychological states (cognitive). For example, physical warmth often promotes social warmth, and you grow a connection with the person you may be hugging 🤗
Synesthesia is a condition where one sensation produces another. For example, when somebody says they can taste a color, they have synesthesia.
All in all, our senses work together to help us survive in any environment!
Here are some simple multiple choice questions taken from a quizizz made by rlepore.
The bones of the inner ear
Membranes within the cochlea
Information from muscles, tendons and joints
The body's sense of balance
What behavior would be difficult without our vestibular sense?
Walking a straight line with our eyes closed
Writing our name
Integrating what we see and hear
Repeating a list of digits.
1) information from muscles, tendons, and joints
2) walking a straight line with our eyes closed
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