🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
August 8, 2020
In this key topic, it is important to remember that the environment🌳 is every external influence that exists. The environment often influence religion, politics, and our morals.
We all have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in each cell. These chromosomes are structures made up of DNA🧬 that contain our genes, which are studied in this chapter.
There are both expressed/active genes and inactive genes, which depends on your environment.
A genome is all of the genes that make up an organism.
An essential question that faces psychologists is the nature vs. nurture debate. Are we more influenced by our genes and heredity🧬 or by our experiences🧠? Biological psychologists in particular are interested in studying the links between our biological (genes, neurons, etc.) processes and psychological processes.
One group of behavioral psychologists, behavior geneticists, are interested in studying the power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. To do this we may look at mutations, chromosome pairs, DNA, genes, or even the entire human genome to see where minute differences can come into play.
Another important way that psychologists can study the influence of nature vs. nurture is through twin and adoption studies. If we are able to study identical twins that were separated at birth, we can compare and contrast them. We would look for similarities and differences in their abilities, personalities, and traits to get an idea of what was more influential - nature or nurture. We can further make comparisons between fraternal twins and siblings raised in the same family to gain additional insights.
Identical (monozygotic) Twins develop from the same fertilized egg that eventually splits into two. Each twin has the same genes, but not the same number of copies of those genes. This may explain some small differences between the two twins or why one is more at risk for illnesses. Identical twins also share the same prenatal environment (placenta) but one may receive slightly better nourishment and care.
Fraternal (dizygotic) Twins develop from different fertilized eggs.
We can also use heritability to understand the variations that exist between individuals being studied. Heritability basically tells us how much of the variation that exists between a group of individuals is due to genetics. Heritability is NOT the amount or percent of a given trait that is inherited. It is instead an explanation of the differences that exist between us related to genetic factors.
Image Courtesy of Study
There are also molecular geneticists that study the molecular structure and function of genes and how they play a role on our behavior. They find genes that allow us to have traits such as body weight, sexual orientation, and extraversion and attempt to find out which specific genes influence each of these behaviors.
When discussing the nature vs. nurture debate it is important to note that often both play an important role in our development and behavior. The interaction of both factors is of particular relevance to those studying epigenetics. Epigeneticists look at how the environment🌲 influences how our genes are expressed without an actual change in DNA.
Genetics give you a foundation of who you are but the environment shapes you into the person you are. The change between the foundation and who you really are is studied by epigeneticists.
These environmental changes explain why each child in a family is different, despite their same genetic background.
Life experiences lay down epigenetic marks, which are methyl molecules that can block the expression of a gene. Epigenetic marks are an example of changes in genes without an actual change in DNA🧬.
Image Courtesy of Myers' AP Psychology Textbook 2nd edition
"Life experiences beginning in the womb lay down epigenetic marks - often organic methyl molecules - that can block the expression of any gene in the associated DNA segment (from Champagne, 2010)."
Mutations are random errors that occur during gene replication that lead to a change.
Evolutionary psychologists focus on the principles of natural selection to explain our behavior and the mind. This principle states that we are more likely to inherit and pass along traits that have been vital to our survival as a species.
Charles Darwin has an large influence in this field of psychology.
It is important to note that biological (genes)🧬, psychological (gene expression + beliefs)🧠, and social-cultural (peer influence)😊 influences all play a part in our individual development.
🎥Watch: AP Psychology - Body Systems, Brain, & Genetics
2550 north lake drive
milwaukee, wi 53211
92% of Fiveable students earned a 3 or higher on their 2020 AP Exams.
*ap® and advanced placement® are registered trademarks of the college board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
© fiveable 2020 | all rights reserved.