The road to equality for civil rights is a long, hard, and ongoing move. Throughout the historical period of the Civil Rights Movement, the Court both restricted and protected the rights of minority groups.
Plessy v. Ferguson
The state laws and federal laws first upheld the principles of discrimination. This happened in the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson, allowing segregation in many public places including hotels 🏨, schools, bathrooms 🚽, drinking fountains, buses 🚌, and so much more on the basis that they were "separate but equal."
Brown v. Board
The ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson was reversed in the 1954 case of Brown v. Board of Education.
Brown v. Board stated that racial segregation in schools 🎓 was in violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This led to the change in the phrase to “separate is not equal”.
Also, in Brown v. Board of Education II (1955), it was obvious that school segregation was still occurring. Thus, the Warren Court ordered that the schools desegregate “with all due and deliberate speed.”