10 min readβ’june 11, 2020

Nick Molnar

The second component of the AP Exam includes 6 Free Response Questions (FRQs).Β

Youβre given **30 minutes** to complete the first twoβPart A. These both *require* a calculator. Then youβll have **1 hour** for the remaining fourβPart B. These, however, are tech-free. Not to worry, though, in the sections ahead weβll detail what you can expect in each part and how to maximize your score.Β

Speaking of scoring, the AP weights each problem equally, 9 points apiece (more later). And, taken together, this section accounts for 50% of your total exam score.

The AP course emphasizes 3 big ideas: change, limits, and analysis of functions. While the specific content varies from year-to-year, in aggregate the exam will test your ability to understand and interpret functions represented in a variety of forms: graphically, from a table, in written form, and as an equation.Β

Each FRQ contains 3 or 4 related sub-tasks, and you can expect a fairly even split between process-oriented and conceptual questions.

**Process-Oriented:**find the derivative; estimate the value of a definite integral; or identify the location or value of a relative maximum**Conceptual:**interpret the graph of the first derivative, f'; verify the conditions of the Mean Value Theorem (MVT); explain why the rate of change of a system is positive or negative with justificationΒ Β Β Β

Note: these lists are not exhaustive, but the FAQs section below discusses other examples

In addition, two questions (at minimum) will feature an authentic scenario. This means theyβll give you more context than an abstract equation or graph.Β

So what do you need to do differently in the FRQ section? In the words of every math teacher youβve ever had: **show your work***.*Β

This emphasis on justification is more than mere suggestion. Approximately *half* of the points possible depend on your ability to support your answer. Of course, what constitutes *good* justification depends on the question. See the comparisons below.Β

While this is accurate, it isnβt clear that this is the derivative nor how we arrived here. A *better* answer would include evidence of our process.Β Β

Here, we clearly show weβre taking the derivativeβusing the power rule *and* the chain rule. If we make an arithmetic error, the reader knows what we were attempting. In these situations you may earn yourself some of the available points. However, if you make a calculation error in the first solution, youβll earn no points at all.Β

Again, technically the result is accurate. Still, we could do *much* better to communicate our line of thinking.

Step one indicates that weβve taken the derivative at x=3. Next we show the location of the point of intersection (3, p(3)). Finally, we label our result.Β

Before we move on, just a few more quick examples.

*NOTE: simply providing a +/- chart (a common practice for these types of problems) does not supply sufficient justification. A simple sentence indicating a change, however, will suffice.Β

As mentioned earlier, each FRQ counts equally. Within each sub-question, however the weightings can vary slightly. That said, normally each part counts 2 or 3 points toward the **9 point** total. Thus, the maximum possible tally for the entire Free Response Section is 54 points. For reference, the MC section contributes 54 points, as well. Your raw score will sum these two.Β

If youβre aiming for a 5? The cutoff changes every year, but a general guide is that raw scores above 70 should qualify.

And what about a 4? Here, again, it varies year-to-year. Usually, raw scores between 60-69 will translate to a 4.Β

AP readersβthose people youβre trying to please with your answersβaward points based on accuracy and on completeness. To earn maximum marks youβll need both.

Above, we discussed some particulars of how to justify your answers. Itβs important because they contribute significantly to your total score.Β

That said, you will earn points for *other *things. Youβll earn points for setting up derivatives and integrals properly; using complete and proper notation; logically moving step-by-step through your mathematical process; and providing the correct answer with the corresponding units, where appropriate. So, what does this look like?

**Rates:**At*t*= 3, the rate at which people are leaving is 142 every hour.**Average:**On [3, 7] the average rate of change of*v*is 6 meters/sec.**Accumulation:**The liquid has cooled 8 degrees Fahrenheit over the interval from*t*= 0 to*t*= 15 mins.

Exactly what do they mean when they say calculator *required*?Β

Well, you can expect to be asked to graph gnarly functions. They often wonβt give you a useful window, so youβll also need to find that. In these scenarios, try the ZoomFit option. It isnβt always perfect, but it can be a lifesaver and (at minimum) point you in the right direction. This is usually just a first step.

Often the questions ask you to find zeros (keep at least 3 decimal places) or locate relative (or absolute) minimums and maximums.Β

Remember, if they ask for location, they're looking for the x-coordinate.

- f(x) achieves a local minimum at x=6.374 because f'(x)=0 here and f'(x) changes sign from negative to positive.

And if they ask for *the* absolute maximum? Then they want the *y*-value.

- g(6) = 123 is the absolute maximum value, as itβs greater than the value of gat both endpoints: g(0)=100 and g(8) = 74.

What else is your calculator good for? Calculating! The AP also may ask you to compute the value of a first or second derivative at a specific point. Similarly, they could ask for the numerical value of any type of definite integral. Need to practice? Weβve __got you covered__.

OK. But how am I supposed to justify? Iβm glad you asked. Letβs look at an example.

A local citrus vendor stocks her stand with 100 pounds of clementines at 9 a.m, at which time the market opens. She leaves her partner in control of the stand and returns to the farm to pick up more fruit. Customers buy her fruit at a rate of

where p(t) is in pounds and t is the number of hours since 9 a.m. Three hours later, the vendor returns with a resupply and moves them from the truck to the stand at a rate modeled by

And there you have it! In Part A, youβll lean heavily on your calculator. And as long as you provide good, clear mathematics notation, appropriate reasoning, and correct units, youβll be prepared to collect maximum points!

Many AP Calculus teachers attempt to predict the types of FRQs that will appear on the upcoming exam. As youβll see below, Modeling Rates and Particle Motion have been popular in the past few years.Β Β Β

- 1βintegrate a difference of rates (definite); average value calculation (not average rate of change); find maximum; interpret rate of change (of a rate)
- 2βfrom a table, justify intermediate value theorem (IVT); approximate using trapezoidal rule; compute distance traveled given velocity; calculate a relative distance between two moving bodies

- 1βdefinite integral given a rate and bounds; integral evaluation with constant function adjustment; finding zeros; minimize a difference of functions
- 2βfind and calculate derivative; evaluate a definite integral with initial condition; interpret displacement vs. total distance traveledΒ Β

Β Β

- 1βRiemann sums approximation from a table; determine over/underestimate with justification; modeling volume from an equation given cross-sectional heights; applying the fundamental theorem of calculus (FTC)Β
- 2βcompute a definite integral given a rate and bounds; calculate and interpret the derivative of a rate; find and explain the difference of two rates; compute a definite integral with an initial conditionΒ Β

Above all, whichever calculator you select, make sure youβre familiar with it. Itβs useful to refresh (and practice!) __the calculator functions__ youβll need on exam day.

In short, youβll need a graphing calculator for the exam. And while youβve likely used one all year that falls within the guidelines, the AP is quite particular about which __graphing calculator model__ you may use.

You are permitted to bring a backup calculator, though if youβre using fresh batteries and pack a few extras (just in case) you should have plenty of insurance.

(as of October 2019) | |

TexasInstruments | TI-73; T1-80; TI-81; TI-82; TI-83 (Plus and Plus Silver) TI-84 (Plus/CE, Plus Silver, Plus C Silver, Plus T, Plus CE-T) TI-85; TI-86; TI-89 and TitaniumΒ TI-NSpire (CX, CX II, CX II-T) TI-NSpire (CX II CAS, CX II-T CAS, CX II-C CAS) |

Casio | FX-6000 Series; FX-6200 Series; FX-6300 SeriesΒ FX-6500 Series; FX-7000 Series; FX-7300 Series FX-7400 Series; FX-7500 Series; FX-7700 Series FX-7800 Series; FX-8000 Series; FX-8500 Series FX-8700 Series; FX-8800 Series; FX-9700 Series FX-9750 Series; FX-9860 Series; FX-CG-5000 (No Stylus)Β FX 1.0 Series; FX-CG-10; FX-CG-20 Series; FX-CG-50Β CFX-9800 Series; CFX-9850 Series; CFX-9950 Series CFX-9970 Series; Algebra FX 2.0 Series Graph25 Series; Graph35 Series; Graph75 SeriesΒ Graph95 Series; Graph100 Series |

HP | HP-9G; HP-28 Series; HP-38G; HP-39 Series; HP-40 Series HP-48 Series; HP-49 Series; HP-50 Series; HP Prime |

Radio Shack | EC-4033; EC-4034; EC-4037 |

Sharp | EL-5200; EL-9200 Series; EL-9300 Series EL-9600 Series ( No Stylus); EL-9900 Series |

Other Models | Datexx DS-883; Micronta; NumWorks; SmartΒ²Β |

Alas, youβll need to put away your trusty TI (__or other approved model__) in the final section of the exam. Looking for consolation? Well, on a number of the problems your calculator wouldnβt offer much help or time-savings anyway. How could that be?

Here the AP likes to test your ability to interpret graphs, tables, and slope fields.Β

What can you discern about g''(t)at t=a if youβre given a picture of g(t)?

Use a table of f(t)values to guarantee the existence of a particular f'(t) value.

Could you produce a specific solution to a differential equation from a slope field?

These examples should give you some idea, but for clarity letβs work an example.

The function g is differentiable on the closed interval [-6, 3]and satisfies g(-2) = 15. The graph of g' consists of a semicircle, a line segment, and a quarter-circle, as shown above, where g'(2) = 1.Β

Congratulations! Once you complete Part B, youβve completed your exam. On test day remember to use good, clear mathematics notation, and always justify your answer!

As mentioned earlier, itβs a popular pastime of some AP Calculus teachers to predict the content that will appear in the upcoming FRQs. Youβll notice that a problem requiring you to analyze a graph and apply FTC has appeared with some frequency.Β

- Graphical Analysis of f and application of FTCΒ
- Modeling using Separable Differential Equations
- Calculating Area and Volumes of RevolutionΒ
- Function AnalysisβLβHospital and SqueezeΒ

- Graphical Analysis of f' and application of FTCΒ
- Modeling from a table of data and analytically
- Function AnalysisβLβHospital
- Separable Differential Equation including Slope Fields

Β Β

- Graphical Analysis of f' and application of FTCΒ
- Modeling using Separable Differential Equations
- Particle Motion
- Function Analysis from a table of data and graphically

Weβre not done quite yet. Hereβs a final reference for things we may not have covered above.

A: If itβs minor, sure. With more significant mistakes, however, itβs quicker and clearer to cross out your work. You can always point the reader forward with an arrow.

A: Ideally, youβll have a hunch one way or the other and youβll clearly identify that answer. If youβre flummoxed, though, or you run out of time, hereβs whatβs likely to happen. Readers will usually score both solutions, take the arithmetic mean, and then round down. You wonβt earn your top score, but itβs possible you may earn more points. As weβve seen though, with good justification, you can overcome an errant final answer.

A: Unless the question specifies specific rounding (usually this is to the nearest integer), you wonβt be penalized if you leave more than 3 correct places.Β

A: No. Stick to proper mathematics notation: f'(x) or ddx

A: Answers always require justification to receive full marks. Just justify it.Β Β

A: Here, the reader is on your side. You shouldnβt be penalized for carrying an incorrect value from a prior part of the question. Your reader will score your answer differently. Usually, she will re-compute the sub-question with the erroneous input. If your process and justification are correct, youβll earn the corresponding points.

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