🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
⏱️ 2 min read
May 11, 2020
Overall, the European population grew during the 18th century. Famines, low food production😔, unexpected weather conditions🌀⛆, and restrictions on trade made a steady food supply difficult, and often impossible at times. Famines across France worked to propel lower class people into the French Revolution due to starvation and burdening taxes. Only after the revolution started was the Enlightenment considered a factor in their demands.
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In the 1750’s, as population grew all over Europe and the Industrial Revolution broke out in Great Britain, people began moving into cities and towns because they were no longer able to farm small plots and produce enough food to survive. New techniques during the Agricultural Revolution were able to produce more food with less people and only larger land owners were able to produce on a consistent basis.
Those who lived in towns and cities🌆 began having smaller families due to the expense of having a large family. Before this time, many families had 10 or more kids due to infant mortality at a higher rate and the need for many kids to help on farms. As people urbanized, the family size shrunk. Low wages in the city and early forms of birth control helped to keep family sizes lower.
Image Courtesy of Bizim kiez
As middle class family sizes grew smaller, more attention could be devoted to raising children and families focused on core values.
Urbanization forced many of the working poor into cities looking for jobs when they were no longer able to farm for a living. This brought crime, prostitution, and extreme poverty into cities and forced municipal and local governments to create a police force to manage growing changes in society. This also brought attention to the growing poor class and the need to manage their suffering. Enlightenment ideas of government reform and lower taxes were attractive to these working poor and those unable to work who were frustrated with their current lifestyle.
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