🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
⏱️ 2 min read
May 11, 2020
The major factor that prompted European exploration was the advancement of technology in navigation, cartography🗺, and military technology💣. This included the creation of devices such as the compass, sternpost rudder, and the advancement of guns. The discovery of the Americas expanded European horizons both intellectually and geographically. Portugal and Spain led the Age of Exploration with Spain having the longest lasting impression on the New World.
Portugal’s main reason for exploration🌍 was to find a quicker route to Asia in search of spices. They were also in search of slaves, gold, and wanted to launch missionary efforts in order to “save” the Muslims. Prince Henry the Navigator captured the north African Muslim city of Ceuta and searched for a safe route around the tip of Africa to Asia’s spice market. Portugal eventually became one of the leaders in the slave trade, as their ships delivered over 150,000 slaves to Europe by the end of the 15th century.
Another Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama, sailed all the way to India around the tip of Africa and returned with spices worth almost 60 times as much as the cost of his voyage. The Portuguese colonies of Calcutta and Goa off the coast of India also came about during this time.
Image Courtesy of Highbrow
While Portugal concentrated on finding a route east to India, Spain focused on a route travelling west across the Atlantic. Spain had Christopher Columbus travel to what he thought was Japan and China. It was not until his third trip that he realized that he was not in Asia, he actually thought he had landed in the East Indies.
His mistake led to the Taino Indians in South America being referred to as Indians across Europe. After Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci and Ferdinand Magellan explored the coastline of South America with Magellan sailing around the tip of South Africa and landing in the Philippines where he was eventually killed. Spain began conquests as well as missionary efforts in South America which left an imprint of Roman Catholicism and economic dependency which can still be seen today.
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia - The arrival of Columbus in the Americas
1. European states wanted access to more gold, spices, and luxury goods to enhance personal wealth and power.
2. Growing idea of mercantilism that promoted states in commercial development and acquisition of overseas colonies.
3. Spread of Christianity by both the government and religious authorities to justify the abusive treatment towards the indigenous civilizations.
4. Enlightenment philosophers compared Columbus’ discovery to the invention of the printing press in terms of how historic these events were.
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