The South continued to struggle to find its new place in the country after the Civil War and Reconstruction. The days of the “Old South”-- The Lost Cause, chivalry, slavery as a “positive good”, etc (Gone With the Wind, anyone?) were over. Despite some small areas of industrialization and some rallying calls to construct a “New South,” the south struggled to rebuild.
Some southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth and improved transportation. Henry Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution spread the gospel of the New South with editorials that argued for economic diversity and laissez-faire capitalism.
Despite progress, the South remained a largely agricultural section and also the poorest region in the country. The poverty of the majority of southerners was not caused by northern capitalists. Two other factors were chiefly responsible:
The South’s late start at industrialization
A poorly educated workforce.
Systems of sharecropping and tenant farming continued to steep the South in agriculture and, more importantly, continued to oppress disenfranchised individuals, mainly African Americans. 👨🏿🌾 👨🏻🌾
The KKK continued to use violence to keep African Americans out of the polls and out of legislative offices. Lynching was widespread. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and poll taxes were also used to restrict voting rights.
The Supreme Court ⚖️ made a series of decisions that severely limited the nature of the Fourteenth Amendment.
In the Civil Rights Cases of 1883, the Court ruled that Congress could not legislate against racial discrimination practice by private citizens, which included railroads, hotels and other businesses.
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In the most important of these cases, Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), it ruled that segregation was constitutional under the doctrine of “separate but equal.” This ruling ushered in the Jim Crow Era.
Various political and legal devices were invented to prevent blacks from voting. The most common were literacy tests, poll taxes and political party primaries for whites only (white primaries). Many southern states adopted grandfather clauses, which allowed a man to vote only if his grandfather had cast ballots in elections before Reconstruction.
Still, many brilliant minds (such as Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and Ida B. Wells) continued to debate the nature of racial relations and advocate for civil rights.
🎥 Watch: AP US History - Period 6 Review
🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1 (NAT) - American and National Identity
Theme 2 (WXT) - Work, Exchange, and Technology
Theme 3 (GEO) - Geography and The Environment
Theme 4 (MIG) - Migration and Settlement
Theme 5 (PCE) - Politics and Power
Theme 7 (ARC) - American and Regional Culture
Theme 8 (SOC): Social Structures
📑 Document Based Questions (DBQ)
🌽 Unit 1: 1491-1607
1.1Context: European Encounters in the Americas
1.6Cultural Interactions Between Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans
🦃 Unit 2: 1607-1754
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Contextualization
2.3The Regions of the British Colonies
2.5Interactions between Native Americans and Europeans
2.6Slavery in the Colonies
🔫 Unit 3: 1754-1800
3.6The Influence of Revolutionary Ideals
3.10Shaping a New Republic
🐎 Unit 4: 1800-1848
4.2The Rise of Political Parties and the Era of Jefferson
4.3Politics and Regional Interests
4.8Jackson and Federal Power
4.9The Development of an American Culture
4.10The Second Great Awakening
4.11The Age of Reform
4.12African Americans in the Early Republic
💣 Unit 5: 1844-1877
5.5Sectional Conflict: Regional Differences
5.6Failure of Compromise
5.7Election of 1860 and Secession
5.9Government Policies during the Civil War
🚂 Unit 6: 1865-1898
6.2Westward Expansion: Economic Development
6.3Westward Expansion Social and Cultural Development
6.6The Rise of Industrial Capitalism
6.7Labor in the Gilded Age
6.9Responses to Immigration
🌎 Unit 7: 1890-1945
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Contextualization
7.3The Spanish-American War
7.5World War I: Military and Diplomacy
7.6World War I: Home Front
7.81920s: Cultural and Political Controversies
7.9The Great Depression
7.10The New Deal
7.11Interwar Foreign Policy
7.12World War II: Mobilization
🥶 Unit 8: 1945-1980
8.2The Cold War from 1945-1980
8.3The Red Scare
8.4Economy after 1945
8.6Early Steps in the Civil Rights Movement
8.7America as a World Power
8.8The Vietnam War
8.10The African American Civil Rights Movement
8.11The Expansion of the Civil Rights Movement
📲 Unit 9: 1980-Present
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Contextualization
9.2Reagan and Conservatism
9.3The End of the Cold War
9.6Challenges of the 21st Century
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
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