⏱️ June 10, 2020
The general population has a vague idea of what an acid is; this is the same case for bases, albeit the idea for bases is a little less common. Personally, as a child, whenever I had heard the word “acidic” I immediately thought of a lemon. Now the case is a little different; I actually think of the chemical definition when I hear the word because organic chemistry took away my childhood innocence.
Jokes aside, acid-base chemistry is the formalization of this concept, and is extremely applicable to the sciences, along with everyday life. If you drink sodas, which are acidic, acid-base chemistry is fundamental in precisely describing why it is unhealthy for your teeth.
If you do not drink soda, acid-base chemistry is essential to organic chemistry, and consequently medicinal chemistry. If it were not for modern science’s knowledge of acid-base chemistry, there would simply not be effective medicine for the general population to take.
Though, on the same note, acid-base chemistry describes why some darker sodas can be used as a cleaning product while still being digestible by humans.
The pH scale, something you will be very familiar with by the time you finish unit 8.
Acid-base chemistry essentially analyzes the complicated paths that free protons take whenever a chemical is dissolved in solution. A free proton is a bonded hydrogen that is accessible by other chemicals, whereas a restricted proton is a proton that is guarded by other atoms in a particular compound. In this unit, you'll look at measuring concentrations of free protons (H+ ions) to find pH and pOH regarding weak acids and bases that do not dissociate fully (meaning that the equilibrium that you learned last unit will come in handy!) and strong acids and bases that do.
Once you understand pH and pOH, you'll start moving into more complicated acid base chemistry like learning about buffers (mixtures of acids and conjugate bases of vice versa) and titrations, which you may be familiar with from unit 4. With titrations in particular, we'll be looking at more complicated ways to do titrations and make calculations based on data from such which is a big topic on the AP exam!
Acid Base Reactions are essentially the basis for any biochemical reaction, ie. it allows life to prosper, and there are only a select handful of things more important to human beings than our own lives. The exceptions to this are money and chicken tenders, which oddly enough also rely on organic chemistry to even exist. Now get excited, unit 8 is a hard unit, but also a suuuper interesting one!
✍️ Free Response Questions
AP Chemistry Free Response Questions
⚛️ Unit 1: Atomic Structure and Properties
1.1Moles and Molar Mass
1.2Mass Spectroscopy of Elements
1.3Elemental Composition of Pure Substances
1.4Composition of Mixtures
1.5Atomic Structure and Electron Configurations
1.6Photoelectron Spectroscopy & Graph Interp.
🤓 Unit 2: Molecular and Ionic Compound Structures and Properties
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Molecular and Ionic Bonding
2.1Types of Chemical Bonds
2.2Intramolecular Force and Potential Energy
2.3Ionic Bonding and Ionic Solids
2.4Metallic Bonding and Alloys
2.5Lewis Dot Diagrams
2.6Resonance and Formal Charge
🌀 Unit 3: Intermolecular Forces and Properties
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Intermolecular Forces and Properties
3.2Properties of Solids
3.3Solids, Liquids, and Gases
3.4The Ideal Gas Law
3.5The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
3.6Deviations from the Ideal Gas Law
3.7Mixtures and Solutions
3.8Representations of Solutions
3.9Separation of Solids/Mixtures
3.10Solubility and Solubility Rules
3.11Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
3.12Quantum Mechanics and the Photoelectric Effect
🧪 Unit 4: Chemical Reactions
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Chemical Reactions
4.1Recognizing Chemical Reactions
4.2Net Ionic Equations
4.4Physical vs. Chemical Changes
4.5Stoichiometry & Calculations
4.6Titrations - Intro and Calculations
4.8Intro to Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions
👟 Unit 5: Kinetics
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Kinetics
5.1Defining Rate of Reaction
5.2Introduction to Rate Laws
5.3Rate and Concentration Change
5.4Writing Rate Laws
5.5Collision Model of Kinetics
5.6Reaction Energy and Graphs w/ Energy
5.7Reaction Mechanisms and Elementary Steps
5.8Writing Rate Laws Using Mechanisms
🔥 Unit 6: Thermodynamics
6.0 Unit 6 Overview: Thermochemistry and Reaction Thermodynamics
6.1Endothermic Processes vs. Exothermic Processes
6.2Energy Diagrams of Reactions
6.3Kinetic Energy, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Equilibrium
6.4Heat Capacity and Coffee-Cup Calorimetry
6.5Phase Changes and Energy
6.6Introduction to Enthalpy of Reaction
6.7Bond Enthalpy and Bond Dissociation Energy
6.8Enthalpies of Formation
⚖️ Unit 7: Equilibrium
🍊 Unit 8: Acids and Bases
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Acids and Bases
8.1Introduction to Acids and Bases
Unit 9: Applications of Thermodynamics
🤺 AP Chemistry Essentials
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions
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