In this session, we discuss how genes become proteins. We discuss the importance of transcription and translation. We discuss RNA versus DNA in an overview (RNA is single-stranded and DNA is double-stranded). We discuss transcription of DNA to mRNA (coding and template strand). We cover key vocabulary terms (exons, introns, 5’ cap, 3’ poly-a tail), and give a splicing example using a sentence. We show two version of translation codon charts and the translation aftermath (using letters, words, sentences and paragraphs to discuss structures). We discuss mutations (2 types: substitution and insertion [or deletion]). We end by focusing on beneficial mutations (using Sickle cell anemia and antibiotic resistance).