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Unit 2

2.0 Unit 2 Overview: Age of Reformation

2 min readjune 11, 2020

Sharii Liang


The one thing you need to know about this unit:

Religious plurality destroyed any hope of a united Europe. 

Discontent with existing religion ➝ creation of new religions ➝ discourse between old and new religions = violence and reform.

Main Events in the Age of Reformation

1455: Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press
1492: Spain becomes religiously unified after the Reconquista
1517: Martin Luther posts the 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church
1521: The Diet of Worms is held to decide Martin Luther’s fate
1521: Edict of Worms is issued
1525: German Peasants’ War
1534: King Henry VIII becomes head of the new Church of England
1545: Council of Trent and Counter/Catholic Reformation begins
1562: French Wars of Religion begin
1572: St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
1598: Edict of Nantes is issued
1618: Thirty Years War begins
1648: The Peace of Westphalia is issued to end the Thirty Years War

Major Trends: 1450-1648

  • Corruption → Dissent → Reform
  • Effects of the Protestant Reformation ☦️
    • Catholic Church lost a lot of power
      • Attempt to gain it back but it will never be the same
      • Allowed states to gain more power and control religion
    • Education spreads 📚
      • Printing press causes literacy rates to increase
    • Religious plurality
      • States see they have no choice but allow religious tolerance
  • Effects of the Counter/Catholic Reformation 
    • More people convert to Catholicism
      • Can never make up for what they lost
    • Church actually reforms after numerous complaints ⛪
      • Council of Trent
      • Popes lead reform movements
  • Role of Women
    • Educational opportunities increase a little
    • Women become much more involved in religion and society
      • Considered moral and religious figures
    • Still made to rear children, get married, and take care of the household 👪
  • Religious upheaval → churches lose power → states take care of religious issues → states enforce morality → public humiliation & witchcraft
🎥 Watch: AP European History - Reformation

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