Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration (1750 – 1900 CE)
In AP® World History, period 5 spans from 1750 CE to 1900 CE and accounts for 20% of the material on the exam. The following guide will be updated periodically with hyperlinks to excellent resources. As you are reviewing for the modern era, focus on the key concepts and use the essential questions to guide you.
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PERIOD 5 DATES TO KNOW
STUDY TIP: You will never be asked specifically to identify a date. However, knowing the order of events will help immensely with cause and effect. For this reason, we have identified the most important dates to know.
1750s CE – Industrialization begins in England
1756 – 1763 CE – 7 Years’ War
1776 CE – Declaration of Independence
1789 CE – French Revolution begins
1804 CE – Haitian Independence
1839 – 1860s CE – Opium Wars in China
1848 CE – Communist Manifesto (Marx & Engels)
1857 CE – Sepoy Mutiny in India
1885 CE – Berlin Conference (Scramble for Africa)
PERIOD 5 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
STUDY TIP: Use the following essential questions to guide your review of this entire unit. Keep in mind, these are not meant to be practice essay questions. Each question was written to help you summarize the key concept.
- How did the development of industrialization and global capitalism affect the world?
- What were the effects of imperialism and nationalism in the world?
- In what ways did nationalism and revolution bring about reform?
- What were the the major push and pull factors for migration in this period and what effect did the movement of people have?
Past Essay Questions from Period 5
STUDY TIP: Content from the modern era has appeared on the essays a whopping seventeen times. Take a look at a few of these questions before you review the key concepts & vocabulary below to get a sense of how you will be assessed. Then, come back to these later and practice writing as many as you can!
**The AP World History exam was revised in 2017, so any questions from before then are not representative of the current exam format or rubric. You can still use prior questions to practice, however DBQs will have more than 7 documents, the LEQ prompts are worded differently, and the rubrics are completely different. Use questions from 2002-2016 with caution.
PERIOD 5 KEY CONCEPTS – COURSE OUTLINE
*The following outline was adapted from the AP® World History Course Description as published by College Board in 2017 found here. This outline reflects the most recent revisions to the course.
5.1. Industrialization and Global Capitalism
- Industrialization changed how goods were produced.
- Industrial Revolution happened first in England because of location, distribution of coal, demographic changes, urbanization, private property protections, an abundance of rivers and canals, access to foreign resources, and accumulated capital.
- New machines (steam engine, internal combustion) led to new energy in fossil fuels.
- Factory system concentrated specialized labor in one location.
- Methods of industrialization spread through Europe, Russia, the US, and Japan.
- Second Industrial Revolution led to new methods with steel, chemicals, & electricity.
- Industrialization increased demand for raw materials and new markets.
- Export economies developed to extract raw materials (cotton, rubber, palm oil).
- European and American manufactured goods skyrocketed while non-industrial countries declined because manual produced less than machines. (textiles in India)
- Global economy expanded and favored western countries. For example, opium produced in Middle East and exported to China. Cotton grown in South Asia, Egypt, the Caribbean, and North America and exported to Europe.
- New financial institutions to facilitate investment in industrial production.
- New economic ideas with capitalism (Adam Smith) and liberalism (John Stuart Mill).
- Large-scale transnational businesses (United Fruit, HSBC) and new financial instruments (stock markets, insurance, gold standard, LLCs).
- Developments in transportation & communication (railroads, steamships, telegraphs).
- Responses to the spread of global capitalism.
- Organization of workers in labor unions for better working conditions, hours, and wages. Workers movements through Marxism.
- Reform efforts in Ottoman & Qing to modernize economies and armies (keep up!).
- State-sponsored industrialization (Meiji Japan, Tsarist Russia, Egypt).
- Political, social, educational, and urban reforms in response to effects of industrialization.
- Organization of societies changed because of restructuring of global economy.
- New social classes including middle class & working class.
- Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographic shifts.
- Urbanization spread rapidly.
5.2. Imperialism and Nation-State Formation
- Industrial powers developed transoceanic empires.
- States strengthened control over colonies (Britain in India, Netherlands in Indonesia).
- European states, the US, & Japan extended empires, Spanish & Portuguese declined.
- European states used warfare & diplomacy to expand in Africa (Belgium in Congo).
- Settler colonies were established.
- Neocolonialism in Latin America and Economic imperialism in East Asia.
- Imperialism influenced state formation & contraction around the world.
- European influence expanded over Tokugawa Japan & led to Meiji reforms.
- US, Russia, and Japan conquered & settled neighboring states.
- Anti-imperial resistance (Cherokees, Zulu, Sepoy rebellion)
5.3. Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform
- Enlightenment thinking challenged established tradition.
- Enlightenment philosophies developed to rethink the role of religion, the relationship with the natural world, and political rights for individuals.
- Ideas were reflected in revolutionary documents (Declaration of Independence, Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, and Bolivar’s Jamaica letter
- Enlightenment ideas challenged existing norms and led to expansion of social rights.
- Nationalism developed based on commonalities with language, religion, and territory. Nationalists sought to unite populations through unification (German, Italian).
- Challenges to imperial rule led to revolutions.
- Subjects challenged imperial gov’t (Marathas to Mughals, Taipings to Manchus).
- Colonial subjects rebelled (America, Haiti, Latin America).
- Slaves resisted (Maroon societies of Caribbean or Brazil).
- Anticolonial movements spread (Sepoy rebellion, Boxer Rebellion).
- Rebellions influenced by religious ideas (Ghost Dance, Xhosa Cattle-Killing).
- New transnational ideologies connection people around the world.
- Discontent with political norms led to democracy, liberalism, socialism, communism.
- Demands for women’s rights sparked feminist movements (Wollstonecraft, de Gouges, Seneca Falls).
5.4. Global Migration
- Demographic changes in industrialized & unindustrialized societies led to migrations.
- More food production and better medicine increased global population.
- Migrants relocated to cities because transportation was better. Global urbanization spread, but some migrants returned to home societies.
- Migrations for many push and pull factors.
- Search for freedom & work.
- Coercive labor systems continued (slavery, indentured servants, convicts).
- Consequences and reactions to migrations varied.
- Migrants mostly male which left women behind to take on new roles.
- Ethnic enclaves formed around the world (Chinese in SE Asia, Irish & Italian in USA).
- Nativist legislation regulated immigration (Chinese Exclusion Act, White Australia).
LIST OF CONCEPTS & VOCABULARY FROM PERIOD 5
STUDY TIP: These are the concepts and vocabulary from period 5 that most commonly appear on the exam. Create a quizlet deck to make sure you are familiar with these terms!
- American Revolution
- assembly line
- balance of power
- Berlin Conference
- Boer Wars
- Boxer Rebellion
- cash crops
- Cecil Rhodes
- Charles Darwin
- Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang)
- classical liberalism
- Congress of Vienna
- corvee laborers
- cult of domesticity
- Declaration of Independence
- Declaration of the Rights of Man / Rights of Woman
- Empress Cixi
- enclosure movement
- export economies
- factory system
- fossil fuel
- French Revolution
- Great Game
- indentured servants
- Indian National Congress
- interchangeable parts
- Karl Marx
- King Leopold II
- labor unions
- means of production
- Meiji Restoration
- millenarian movement
- Napoleon Bonaparte
- Open Door Policy
- Opium War
- Otto von Bismarck
- penal colony
- Qing Dynasty
- raw materials
- Roosevelt Corollary
- Scramble for Africa
- Self-Strengthening Movement
- separation of powers
- sepoy mutiny
- Simon Bolivar
- Sino-Japanese War
- Social Darwinism
- Suez Canal
- Sun Yat-sen
- Taiping Rebellion
- Toussaint L’Ouverture
- Trans-Siberian Railroad
- Transcontinental Railroad
- Treaty of Nanking
- Treaty of Portsmouth
- White Australia Policy
- working class
- Xhosa Cattle Killing Movement
- Young Turks
- Zulu Kingdom