⏱️ March 25, 2020
European trade and expansion into North America would lead to both accomodations and conflict with the Native Americans who lived there. The natives had established settlements and a lifestyle for thousands of years in North America before European arrival. The British, French, Dutch, and Spanish would all eventually expand into Indian territory.
Initially, Europeans and Native Americans established friendly relations and exchanged products while sharing the same land. But by the early 1600’s, conflicts would erupt over land, resources, and cultural beliefs. Some of these conflicts over land and resources would also take place between different native tribes, such as the Iroquois and the Huron.
Trade was an important part of the exchanges between Europeans and Native Americans. Native beaver furs in the North would be exchanged for European guns, metal tools, glass beads, and textiles. Tribes like the Iroquois became heavily armed from this and had an advantage over other tribes that did not engage in European trade.
The most dramatic effect of this transatlantic contact was the spread of disease. Over time, millions of natives in the Americas would die from exposure to European smallpox and other lethal diseases. Native Americans did not have an immune system to deal with these European diseases.
Relations between the Puritans and the local Wampanoag Indians in the early 1600’s were friendly. Chief Massasoit signed a peace treaty with the Pilgrims in 1621 which led to the first Thanksgiving celebration and exchanges of food.
However, English expansion and their settlements led Massasoit’s son, Metacom, also called King Philip by the English, to forge an Indian alliance to counter this white encroachment upon native lands. King Philip’s War (1675-1677) would devastate both the New England frontier and Indian-European relations.
The Native Americans lost this war with many casualties. Numerous New England towns were destroyed. King Philip was beheaded while his wife and son were sold as slaves. This was the last Indian threat to New England colonists.
The Connecticut Valley also witnessed confrontation between English settlers and the local Pequot Indians. The English and their Narragansett Indian allies torched Pequot villages and decimated the Pequot population.
The Iroquois Confederacy was one of the largest native nations on the continent. They had an organized government, were armed with European guns and trapped beaver furs and other pelts in upstate New York and Pennsylvania. They allied themselves with the British against the French and their native allies, the Huron.
The Beaver Wars of the 1640’s saw the Iroquois fight the French and the Hurons over beaver pelts and hunting land rights in the Ohio Valley. The Iroquois would also defeat numerous other native tribes during this time and chase them out of their lands.
In Pennsylvania, Native American and European relations were much friendlier, thanks to founder William Penn. Penn and the Quakers established peaceful relations with many local tribes, even though these tribes were controlled by the Iroquois. However, the Scots-Irish and other Europeans would expand westward and create conflict with the natives. By 1740, relations soured and many tribes were decimated.
When the English settled Jamestown in 1607 in Virginia, they met Chief Powhatan and the numerous local tribes that were part of Powhatan’s Confederacy. As with many initial Native American-European encounters, relations began amicably but soured quickly. Food was scarce in the Chesapeake and colonists began raiding Powhatan food supplies.
A series of wars broke out between the Anglos and Powhatans from 1610-1646. The Governor of Virginia, Lord De La Warr (yes, Delaware got its name from this English noble) imposed harsh tactics against the Powhatans. His soldiers torched cornfields and Powhatan houses while systematically eliminating the Powhatans.
Disease and the English desire to wipe out these Indians from Virginia caused the extinction of the Powhatans. Also, the fact that these natives could not be used as laborers in the tobacco fields made them disposable. As a result, the peace treaty of 1646 created a distinctive white settlement in Virginia.
Elsewhere, the Savannah Indians of the coastal Carolinas were crushed by white settlers by 1710. The Tuscaroras of Newbern, North Carolina were also defeated by white settlers by 1711, with many being sold as slaves. Those remaining would become part of the Iroquois Confederacy. The Cherokee and Creeks would remain in the interior for another fifty years.
🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1 (NAT) - American and National Identity
Theme 2 (WXT) - Work, Exchange, and Technology
Theme 3 (GEO) - Geography and The Environment
Theme 4 (MIG) - Migration and Settlement
Theme 5 (PCE) - Politics and Power
Theme 7 (ARC) - American and Regional Culture
Theme 8 (SOC): Social Structures
📑 Document Based Questions (DBQ)
🌽 Unit 1: 1491-1607
1.1Context: European Encounters in the Americas
1.6Cultural Interactions Between Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans
🦃 Unit 2: 1607-1754
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Contextualization
2.3The Regions of the British Colonies
2.5Interactions between Native Americans and Europeans
2.6Slavery in the Colonies
🔫 Unit 3: 1754-1800
3.6The Influence of Revolutionary Ideals
3.10Shaping a New Republic
🐎 Unit 4: 1800-1848
4.2The Rise of Political Parties and the Era of Jefferson
4.3Politics and Regional Interests
4.8Jackson and Federal Power
4.9The Development of an American Culture
4.10The Second Great Awakening
4.11The Age of Reform
4.12African Americans in the Early Republic
💣 Unit 5: 1844-1877
5.5Sectional Conflict: Regional Differences
5.6Failure of Compromise
5.7Election of 1860 and Secession
5.9Government Policies during the Civil War
🚂 Unit 6: 1865-1898
6.2Westward Expansion: Economic Development
6.3Westward Expansion Social and Cultural Development
6.6The Rise of Industrial Capitalism
6.7Labor in the Gilded Age
6.9Responses to Immigration
🌎 Unit 7: 1890-1945
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Contextualization
7.3The Spanish-American War
7.5World War I: Military and Diplomacy
7.6World War I: Home Front
7.81920s: Cultural and Political Controversies
7.9The Great Depression
7.10The New Deal
7.11Interwar Foreign Policy
7.12World War II: Mobilization
🥶 Unit 8: 1945-1980
8.2The Cold War from 1945-1980
8.3The Red Scare
8.4Economy after 1945
8.6Early Steps in the Civil Rights Movement
8.7America as a World Power
8.8The Vietnam War
8.10The African American Civil Rights Movement
8.11The Expansion of the Civil Rights Movement
📲 Unit 9: 1980-Present
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Contextualization
9.2Reagan and Conservatism
9.3The End of the Cold War
9.6Challenges of the 21st Century
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
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