🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
Adolescence refers to the transitory period from childhood to adulthood, generally beginning with puberty and extending into independent adulthood. G Stanley Hall was one of the first to identify the phase of adolescence. He saw this, rightfully so, as a turbulent period filled with stress and challenge.
While adolescence is absolutely a trying time, it is also a time of great exploration and growth🌱. It is an interesting period in which an individual comes to know themself and their personal likes👍, dislikes👎, desires❤️, and goals🙌.
Physically speaking, adolescence begins with puberty, which refers to the sexual maturation of an individual. While the timing at which puberty sets in varies amongst individuals (typically beginning at around 11 years for females and 13 years for boys), the sequence of events tends to be fixed.
For more information on the physical changes associated with puberty, see Key Concept 6.7
Prior to puberty, brain development is characterized by the rapid development of neural networks as the child integrates new stimuli and experiences🧠. While these connections continue to form in adolescence, there is also the aspect of pruning that begins to advance as well. The skills and mechanisms that teens do not frequently use will eventually be lost. See Key Concept 6.1 for more information on this process.
The process of pruning fine-tunes the brain as neural networks that are frequently used are strengthened, while those that are unused tend to shut down over time.
The brain tissue itself also continues to develop in this stage. While the centers of emotion in the limbic system are mostly solidified, the development of the frontal lobe lags behind. The growth of the fatty tissue known as myelin speeds neurotransmission and advances the development of the more complex brain areas.
If you recall from the unit on Biological Basis of Behavior, the limbic system is associated with more primitive and basic emotions and motivation. It is the frontal lobe that is involved in rational thinking🤔, planning, and the abstract thought required to fully understand potential consequences.
Image Courtesy of Teen Brain Talk
This explains why teenagers can sometimes be explosive, moody, or reckless in their choices. Teens may engage in risky behaviors like unprotected sex, drinking and driving, or smoking without fully considering the detrimental consequences such decisions may bring. Astoundingly, the frontal lobe does not fully develop until around the age of 25.
With the development of abstract and hypothetical thinking🎨, comes the ability to ponder the world around us. As we mature into adults (and even throughout adulthood), individuals develop the ability to understand, question, and attempt to change the world around them.
Young people may begin to analyze society, morality, politics, or religion⛪. They may become motivated to advocate for causes they feel most strongly about and attempt to instill the changes they wish to see in the world.
Image Courtesy of Connect4Climate
Development of morality also comes with higher reasoning abilities. Concepts like right, wrong, good, evil, justice, and equality all rely on the ability to think abstractly.
See Key Concept 6.6 for more information on moral development.
What does not occur as the result of biology occurs as the result of social interaction. Relationships with parents, teachers, and peers play a crucial role in adolescent development, especially in teenage years.
With adolescence comes the formation of identity, or our sense of self. Individuals in more individualistic cultures (typically Western cultures) tend to place a greater focus on identity. In collectivist cultures, the focus is less on individual identity and more on functioning as part of a family and community.
Regardless of culture, social influence plays a huge role throughout adolescence. Interactions with parents and peers helps to shape and guide individuals as they transition from child to adult.
A key feature of adolescent development is the transition from dependency to independence. Teenagers begin to pull away from their parents in various ways. They may express embarrassment in things they once found comfort in or may begin to question the ideas and beliefs of the parents. Teenage rebellion is a natural step in adolescent development.
Nonetheless, positive relationships with parents in teen years is crucial. Teens with healthy parental relationships tend to form positive relationships with peers. They also tend to do better in school and experience less behavioral issues.
Peers also greatly influence social development. Humans, especially teenagers, are social creatures and have a tendency towards conformity. Social isolation and exclusion can be fairly excruciating for those who experience it. As a result, teens may succumb to peer pressure in order to fit in with others.
Attempting to fit in, teenagers adopt peer culture like accents, styles, slang, and attitudes. The selection effect is where teenagers seek out peers with similar attitudes and interests and the eventually form groups.
🎥Watch: AP Psychology - Development: Maturation, Gender, etc
2550 north lake drive
milwaukee, wi 53211
92% of Fiveable students earned a 3 or higher on their 2020 AP Exams.
*ap® and advanced placement® are registered trademarks of the college board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
© fiveable 2020 | all rights reserved.