ap physics 1
👉 AP Physics Essentials
👟 Unit 1 - Kinematics
1.1Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
🌀 Unit 2 - Dynamics
2.5Newton's Third Law and Free-Body Diagrams
🚀 Unit 3 - Circular Motion
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Circular Motion and Gravitation
3.3Gravitational and Electric Forces
3.4Gravitational Field/Acceleration Due to Gravity on Different Planets
3.5Inertial vs. Gravitational Mass
3.7Free-Body Diagrams for Objects in Uniform Circular Motion
⚡️ Unit 4 - Energy
4.1Open and Closed Systems: Energy
4.2Work and Mechanical Energy
⛳️ Unit 5 - Momentum
🎸 Unit 6 - Simple Harmonic Motion
6.1Period of Simple Harmonic Oscillators
🎡 Unit 7 - Torque & Rotational Motion
7.2Torque and Angular Acceleration
7.3Angular Momentum and Torque
💡 Unit 8 - Electric Charges & Electric Force
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Electric Charge and Electric Force
8.1Conservation of Charge
🔋 Unit 9 - DC Circuits
9.1Definition of a Circuit
9.3Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Loop Rule (Resistors in Series and Parallel)
🔊 Unit 10 - Mechanical Waves & Sound
10.1Properties of Waves
10.3Interference and Superposition (Waves in Tubes and on Strings)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQs)
Paragraph Length Response
⏱️ 2 min read
April 16, 2020
At the macroscopic level, forces can be categorized as either long-range (action-at-a-distance) forces or contact forces.
Electric force results from the interaction of one object that has an electric charge with another object that has an electric charge.
As described in 8.2, charged objects attract or repel each other based on their charges. Coulomb’s Law lets us calculate the amount of force this attraction or repulsion exerts.
In the equation above:
F = Force in Newtons
k = Electrostatic Constant (on your reference tables)
q = charge on the objects in Coulombs
r = distance between the objects in meters
This equation leads to the following conclusions:
More charge => More Force
More distance => Less Force (Inverse Square Law, see graph below)
Just as a review, there are many similarities between this electrostatic force equation and Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation. Both equations are inverse square laws (meaning they both have an r^2 term in the denominator). The key differences between them are that k is significantly greater than G (about 10^20 times larger) and that Fe can be attractive or repulsive. The fact that Fe is so much greater than Fg means that it only takes a small amount of charge difference to have a noticeable electrostatic force, while to see a gravitational attraction takes very large amounts of mass.
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