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Unit 3

# 3.2 Fundamental Forces

Peter Apps

### AP Physics 1Β π‘

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## Essential Knowledge 3.G.1 π

Gravitational forces are exerted at all scales and dominate at the largest distances and mass scales.
The Force of Gravity or Weight is given as mass x acceleration due to gravity. From this equation, we can gain the knowledge that the larger an objectβs mass, the more magnitude Force of Gravity will garner.

Image courtesy of memecenter.com.

Moreover, on astronomical scales gravity dominates over the other fundamental forces: the strong force, electromagnetic force, and the weak force. Despite the fact that gravity is usually the weakest of the four fundamental forces there are two key factors that help it dominate on this specific scale: gravity has an infinite range, and there is no negative mass.

### The Four Fundamental Forces

In terms of typical strength;
1. The Strong Force - binds the fundamental particles of matter together to form larger particles
2. Electromagnetic Force - acts between charged particles
3. The Weak Force - particle decay
4. Gravity - the attraction between two objects that have mass or energy
βΆ Still feeling a little confused about The Four Fundamental Forces? Donβt worry! Check out this video from Khan Academy for more practice!

### Gravitational Domination

The strong and weak forces are very short-ranged, so outside of the nuclei of atoms, these forces quickly become zero. Moreover, while there is no negative mass there is such a thing as a negative electric charge that affects electromagnetic forces. If you place a single positive electric charge near a single negative electric charge the negative charge cancels out the positive charge somewhat.
π₯Watch: AP Physics 1 - Unit 3 Streams

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