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2.10 Cell Compartmentalization

#cellstructure

⏱️  1 min read

written by

Tejas Bhartiya

tejas bhartiya

June 8, 2020


One of the major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is that eukaryotes compartmentalize their internal processes in membrane-bound organelles. 

In eukaryotic cells, after RNA is made from DNA in the process of transcription, it moves to the ribosome to go through the process of translation. The RNA has to move out of the nucleus to either a free-standing ribosome or to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. 

In prokaryotes, RNA is converted to proteins right after being made from DNA, as they do not have a nucleus or endoplasmic reticulum. This will lead to more differences in transcription and translation, which will be discussed in a later unit.

By reducing the amount of competing space and surface area, and also reducing the amount of competing reactions, eukaryotic cells are able to be more efficient than prokaryotic cells.

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