๐Ÿ“š

All Subjects

ย >ย 

๐Ÿ–ผย 

AP Art History

ย >ย 

๐Ÿ›•

Unit 8

8.2 India and Southeast Asia ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ญ

3 min readโ€ขoctober 29, 2020

cait

Cait Levin

charly511115

Charly Castillo


India and Southeast Asia ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ญ

But before we do that, you may be wondering why we decided to group India and Southeast Asia together, since they're two geographically and culturally distinct areas ๐Ÿง? During this time period, the majority of people in both India and Southeast Asia practiced Hinduism and Buddhism (although there were also Jains, Muslims, and other religious groups), which is why they're placed together. Nowadays, those religions are still widely practiced in the area, except in Indonesia, where the majority of the population practices Islam ๐Ÿ•Œ

Architecture and Sculpture

Buddhism

Buddhist architecture revolves around the stupa, a shrine that stores spiritual objects (reliquary) and is considered to be the living presence of the Buddha and other religious figures like nuns and monks. The number of stupas at each building depends by work and can range anywhere from one (as in the case of the Great Stupa) or 1,500 at Borobudur, which shows these buildings' diversity. Because you can't go inside of stupas, visitors pray by circumambulating (walking around ๐Ÿšถ) the structures in the direction of the Sun's movement โ˜€๏ธ, showing cosmology's importance in Buddhism. They are also hemispherical and shaped similarly to the Sun.
Buddhist architecture is also known for their carvings which can be seen on their toranas (gateways, seen below in the first image โฌ‡๏ธ) and on high-relief sculptures either on or surrounding the buildings.
https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-S5ZdG0Al39Gu.jpg?alt=media&token=b914ee74-ff0b-418e-b571-b984b9b7c899

Image Courtesy of World Heritage Journeys. Great Stupa.

https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-CoYwarAnTywV.jpg?alt=media&token=6a171752-15c7-4853-9b5f-f61f334d81e6

Image Courtesy of the Jakarta Post. Borobudur.

Hinduism

In Christianity, a church is a place for a congregation to worship, but in Hinduism, temples are considered to be the home of a god or goddess ๐Ÿ , not a place for large groups of worshipers. Despite this, Hindu temples have small, intricate rooms inside for priests and people to individually visit. This attention to detail is also seen on the exterior of the Hindu architecture, mainly because of its corbelled gallery roofs (shown below โฌ‡๏ธ), which make the buildings look similar to a beehive. The outside of these temples are also covered with horror vacui sculptures (cramped figures with little empty space), usually of maithuna (divine couples), and some may have sculptures inside, as well.
https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-oWyONdz3JOTK.jpg?alt=media&token=95e33ebd-955d-41cb-98a4-3ce4c00aeb30

Image Courtesy of Borton Overseas. Angkor Wat.

https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-pMWCWdPg0vL6.jpg?alt=media&token=afd76891-3bf3-417a-8a34-1639905f3d2d

Image Courtesy of Wikipedia (CC BY-SA 3.0). Lakshmana Temple.

Painting

When you first look at the painting below โฌ‡๏ธ, you may notice the wide array of colors used and its intricate patterns, which are two of the most common characteristics of Indian paintings. They are also crowded with motifs (in this case, geometric and floral ones), but not as cramped as the horror vacui seen in the architecture and sculptures of this unit. Some paintings, including Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings (which is the work below), were influenced by European art ๐ŸŽจ and show the effect of cross-cultural interactions on works from India and Southeast Asia.
https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-RYyotV2MkSYH.jpg?alt=media&token=6fbc5971-c7ea-4d33-a728-e9658316ba25

Image Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution. Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings.

โ“Visual and Contextual Analysis: What parts of this work may have been influenced by earlier European art movements, religion, and historical figures?

Was this guide helpful?

๐Ÿ” Are you ready for college apps?
Take this quiz and find out!
Start Quiz
FREE AP art history Survival Pack + Cram Chart PDF
Sign up now for instant access to 2 amazing downloads to help you get a 5
Browse Study Guides By Unit
๐Ÿ™
Exam Reviews
๐Ÿข
Unit 10: Global Contemporary, 1980 ce to Present
๐Ÿ—ฟ
Unit 1: Global Prehistory, 30,000โ€“500 bce
๐Ÿ›
Unit 2: Ancient Mediterranean, 3500 bceโ€“300 ce
โ›ช๏ธ
Unit 3: Early Europe and Colonial Americas, 200โ€“1750 ce
โš”๏ธ
Unit 4: Later Europe and Americas, 1750โ€“1980 ce
๐ŸŒฝ
Unit 5: Indigenous Americas, 1000 bceโ€“1980 ce
โšฑ๏ธ
Unit 6: Africa, 1100โ€“1980 ce
๐Ÿ•Œ
Unit 7: West and Central Asia, 500 bceโ€“1980 ce
๐Ÿš
Unit 9: The Pacific, 700โ€“1980 ce
Join us on Discord
Thousands of students are studying with us for the AP Art History exam.
join now
Hours Logo
Studying with Hours = the ultimate focus mode
Start a free study session
๐Ÿ“ฑ Stressed or struggling and need to talk to someone?
Talk to a trained counselor for free. It's 100% anonymous.
Text FIVEABLE to 741741 to get started.
ยฉ 2021 Fiveable, Inc.