Artistic Movements and their Characteristics
Rococo (1700-1750 CE)
Artists used delicate, curvilinear lines rather than straight ones to add playfulness and romance to their works.
Beauty of nature is a theme in some Rococo works like The Swing.
Pastel colors are commonly used (the work below has soft yellows in the lace and pinks on the cheeks ⬇️)
Image Courtesy of AP Art History. Self-Portrait.
Neoclassicism (1750-1815 CE)
Inspired by the principles of classical Greco-Roman 🏛️architecture (composition, symmetry, balance, etc.)
Depicted biblical and mythological stories, especially those that were an exemplum virtutis (a heroic, virtuous scene that the viewer could be inspired by)
Use of linear perspective (creating the illusion that something painted on a 2D surface is 3D through lines, which all meet up at a certain part of the work called the vanishing point)
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia (CC BY 3.0). George Washington.
Romanticism (1789-1848 CE)
Depicted the sublime (anything that makes its viewers look in awe 😱)
Many paintings had political messages about events that were occurring at the time, like the French Revolution, Peninsular War (war fought by Spain and Portugal against France after Napoleon Bonaparte made his brother the King of Spain), and the Zong Massacre (the deliberate killing of enslaved Africans on a slave boat by drowning).
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia. Liberty Leading the People.
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia. Olympia.
Artists worked in plein-air (outside, which allowed them to see what things looked like depending on the amount of light ☀️throughout the day).
The forced opening of Japan inspired artists to incorporate concepts from their art and create a new style called Japonisme (an European artistic movement that infused traditional European art with aspects from Japanese works).
Image Courtesy of OHS APAH. The Saint-Lazare Station.
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia. Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?.
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia. The Scream.
Art Nouveau (1890s-1914)
Utilized many media (materials) like oil paint and gold leaf (as seen in the work below ⬇️), rather than just using one
Artists prefer using curvilinear lines because they add an organic, flowing look to their works.
Designs are complex and elaborate (combine both geometric and organic shapes, many individual decorations, etc.).
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia. The Kiss.
The Prairie Style (1900-1930s)
Believed that buildings should reflect the area where they are built and be in harmony with its location 🏡
Plans (structure of a building) are inspired by contemporary paintings and are made up mostly of geometric shapes like circles and squares
Use of cantilevers (beams that extend past a building) to add balconies to buildings and irregularity its overall shape (as seen below ⬇️)
Image Courtesy of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. Fallingwater.
Used vivid, contrasting colors (as seen in the work below with the greens and oranges ⬇️)
Images that would normally be three-dimensional seem flat and unrealistic
Image Courtesy of henrimatisse. Goldfish.
Works are more abstract than they were in previous artistic movements
Like Fauvist painters, Expressionist ones also used contrasting colors in their works for a jarring effect 😨
Depicted serious topics such as World War I and its effects (Self-Portrait as a Soldier), mental health issues (Self-Portrait as a Soldier), and assassinations (Memorial Sheet for Karl Liebknecht)
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia. Self-Portrait as a Soldier
Painting and Sculpture
Three different phases: Analytical (used sharp lines and rough, pointed edges), Synthetic (no depth, geometric shapes, collage-like in appearance), and Curvilinear (round edges)
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.
Image Courtesy of Khan Academy. The Results of the First Five-Year Plan.
Image Courtesy of AP Art History. Fountain.
Extremely abstract and unlike previous artistic movements
Lines may only be perpendicular (meeting one another at a 90 degree angle ➕) and can't intersect diagonally, which makes the work look more simplistic and clean.
Only white, black, and the three primary colors (yellow, blue, and red) are allowed to be used in works.
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia. Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow.
The International Style (1920s-1930s)
Both the Villa Savoye and Seagram Building have simplistic, geometrical designs 🌆
Use of ferroconcrete (concrete that is reinforced with steel) to give buildings more structure and reduce the chance of stress
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia. Villa Savoye.
The Harlem Renaissance (1920s-1930s)
Image Courtesy of Elam's Art/History. The Migration of the Negro.
Mexican Muralists (1920s-1930s)
Mexican muralists made their works using the fresco technique (painting on top of freshly applied lime plaster 🎨).
Most works have social, political, or cultural messages and picture Mexican figures from throughout history to show all the factors that have led Mexico to be the place it is today (historicism).
Image Courtesy of diegorivera. Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in Alameda Central Park
Painting and Sculpture
The meaning of Surrealist works are not meant to be understood and should puzzle their viewers 🤔
Movement was influenced by advancements made in the field of psychology by psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
Image Courtesy of Khan Academy. The Two Fridas.
Abstract Expressionism/The New York School (1940s-1950s)
Abstract, but not minimalist like the works made by artists of the DeStijl movement
Action paintings (a type of abstract work where artists spill paint onto the canvas, rather than paint it on the traditional way) become popular.
Image Courtesy of the Museum of Modern Art. Woman I.
Pop Art (1955-1970s)
Painting and Sculpture
Image Courtesy of Yale University Art Gallery. Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks.
Color Field Painting (1960s)
Much more monochromatic (something using one color or multiple hues of the same color) and simple than works from previous artistic movements
Nature-like appearance without obviously being something in nature 🌊
Image Courtesy of Khan Academy. The Bay.
Image Courtesy of AP Art History. Narcissus Garden.
Site Art (1970s-1990s)
Image Courtesy of Dia Art Foundation. Spiral Jetty.
And now we're done with unit 4, the longest section in AP Art History! In the next unit, we'll be taking a deep look into the works of the Americas before European influence, but for now, give yourself a pat on the back for getting through this one. Be sure to go over what you just learned before moving on to unit 5. Happy studying, art historians 🎨!